What is the global media landscape? How has it evolved over the past decades? What role has UNESCO played in the shaping of the global media landscape?
The global media landscape is the digital technology and aesthetics of the flow of media. It has evolved over the last decade by allowing the global and contra-flow of media to flow in different directions (export and import). This allows those who didn’t have access to other nations or target audience to expand their base or reach a larger audience. The UNESCO role, which is the mediator, has shaped the global media landscape. It helps to report information to the key players involved providing them with education for a better understanding of culture scientifically. I think that this allows all parties involved to make better decisions when it comes to the trading of communication and media commodities.
Who are the major media players (companies and countries)? What is meant by ‘subaltern’ contra-flows? Are these anti-hegemonic or pro-American? Why?
The major media players in terms of countries is United States, Europe, and Asia. The major media company players are CNN (US), ESPN (US), Disney (US), Discovery (US), Hollywood (US), Google (US), BBC (Europe), CNBC (US), Wall Street Journal (US), Japanese Animation (Japan), etc.( Thussu, 12).
What is meant by “subaltern Contra-flows”, is an sub-alternate flow that flows culture from one place to another by a constituent from another region (Thussu,11-13) . For example, there are two types of Contra-Flows: Transnational and Geo Cultural (Thussu,12) . Transnational is a subaltern flow that consist of multi-vocal, multimedia, and multi-directional flows (Thussu,11-13).
According to the text, Thussu states that global media traffic isn’t just one way, even with the US at core. I think that this shows that the subaltern flows is anti-hegemonic even though they may be hybridized (Thussu,18-21). The goals of these subaltern flows is to create a flow that counters the dominant flows, giving the world audience a different perspective of culture and creativity (Thussu, 10-13).